NATURE AND SCOPE OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
DEFINITION OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
Q.1 Define the concept of Human Geography. Mention the nature of
Ans. Human geography studies:
• “The relationship between the physical/natural and the human
• The spatial distributions of human phenomena and
• How they come about, the social and economic differences between
different parts of the world”.
Q.2 What is the core concern of geography as a discipline?
Ans. The core concern of geography is to understand the earth as home of
human beings and to study all those elements which have sustained
DUALISM / DIACHOTOMY in HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
Q.3 Mention the any three dualism in geography which started wide-ranging
debates in the discipline of geography.
Ans. The three dualism in geography which started wide-ranging debates in the
discipline of geography are:
a. Whether geography as a discipline should be a law making/theorising
(nomothetic) or descriptive (idiographic).
b. Whether approach of the study should be regional or systematic?
c. Whether geographical phenomena be interpreted theoretically or
through historic-institutional approach?
Q.4 State any six examples of metaphors used to describe the physical and
Ans. They are:
i. ‘face’ of the earth,
ii. ‘eye’ of the storm,
iii. ‘mouth’ of the river,
iv. ‘snout’ (nose) of the glacier,
v. ‘neck’ of the isthmus
vi. ‘profile’ of the soil.
vii. regions, villages, towns have been described as ‘organisms’.
viii. Networks of road, railways and water ways are described as “arteries of
Naturalization of Humans or Environmental determinism
Q.5 Describe important features of the concept of Natualisation of Humans.
State the important characteristics of environmental determinism approach
of study of human geography.
Ans. Environmental deterministic approach states that:
a. Environment controls human actions and activities. Humans were
directly dependent on the natural environment.
[The elements of physical
landforms, soils, climate,
water, natural vegetation
and diverse flora and
fauna. The elements of
environment are Houses,
villages, cities, road-rail
farms, ports and items of
our daily use which are
created by human beings
using the resources
provided by the physical
environment.]b. Humans were not free and they adapted according to the nature.
c. Humans were naturalized they were afraid of natural forces.
d. It states that human history, culture, life style, and stages of
development are influenced by the physical environment like
climate, soil, relief, etc.
e. It considers human as passive agents, whose attitude, decision
making is influenced by physical environment.
f. Example: the life of nomads or tribal people living in mountains or
Humanisation of Nature or Possibilism
Q.6 Describe important features of the concept of Humanisation of Nature.
State the important characteristics of possibilism approach of human
Ans. Possibilistic approach states that:
a. Humans were free to choose/decide. Nature did not control him.
b. The nature provided/offered opportunities/possibilities for humans to
exploit it for their benefits.
c. It considered humans as active agents rather than a passive one.
d. It’s the technology, attitude, habits, values of humans which influenced
its action not the nature.
e. The nature got humanized.
Neodeterminism or Stop and Go determinism
Q.7 State the important characteristics of concept of neodeterminism approach
of human geography.
Which approach in the study of human geography was followed by Griffith
Taylor? State two characteristics of this approach.
Ans. Griffith Taylor introduced the concept of neodeterminism of stop and go
determinism. It states that:
a. Neither is there a situation of absolute necessity (environmental
determinism) nor is there a condition of absolute freedom
b. It states that nature has provided possibilities and scope for
development but also put limits on it.
c. It means that human beings can conquer nature by obeying it. They
can continue in their pursuit of development when nature permits.
d. The neo-determinism conceptually attempts to bring a balance
nullifying the ‘either’ ‘or’ dichotomy.